Handscroll Depicting A Battle Scene in the Famous 'Later Three Years War' (1083-1087) of Japan

日本著名戰事「後三年之役」(1083-1087)手繪繪卷

Dimension = 573 cm X 36 cm

This handscroll was hand drawn with black ink on very thin antique paper. Although it is unsigned but it is so very well drawn that it must be done by a master in Meiji period (1868-1912) or earlier.  It was probably done in the early part of the 18th century.

In 1083 Yoshiie was commissioned by the Court to subdue another rebel, this time against the same Kiyowara family who had assisted the Minamoto in the previous war. After the Abe’s defeat, the Kiyowara had been elevated and filled the power vacuum in the north. A power struggle had broken out among various family members, and in the end Yoshiie was sent to quell the disturbance. The conflict became known as the Later Three-Year War and culminated, after a setback at Numu (1086), in the Battle of Kanazawa. In an incident that became a famous military anecdote, Yoshiie’s men were advancing to contact when a flock of birds began to settle in a certain spot then abruptly flew off. Yoshiie suspected an ambush and had the place surrounded, sure enough revealing the enemy army.  Yoshiie went on to reduce Kanazawa through siege and the Later Three-Year War drew to a close.

西元1083, 也就是前九年之役結束的二十年後, 當時的大將陸奧守-源賴義已經辭世多年。而他的嫡子, 河內源氏三代目的源義家, 也被朝廷委任為新的陸奧守。三十年前發生前九年之役的時候, 十六歲的源義家已經在陸奧的戰場上馳騁殺敵, 只是再次回到熟悉的地方時, 義家已是四十四歲的壯年人了雖然陸奧國名義上的長官是陸奧守, 但實權卻是掌控在鎮守府將軍清原一族的手上。 清原武貞死後,嫡子清原真衡繼任鎮守府將軍, 他的姑丈吉彥秀武是前九年之役清原陣營堶垠n將領, 但是真衡素來瞧不起他, 甚至還故意刁難與羞辱。因此吉彥秀武憤而起兵並唆使真衡的兩個弟弟一起叛變, 後三年之役也因此而展開。

真衡的兩位弟弟分別是清衡與家衡, 真衡跟家衡是同父(清原武貞)異母, 至於家衡則是跟清衡同母異父。 清衡是前九年之役-藤原清經的兒子, 藤原清經被源賴義俘虜斬首後, 他的妻子(安倍賴時的女兒)就帶著清衡改嫁清原武貞, 並與武貞生下了家衡。

西元1083年戰爭爆發後, 陸奧守-源義家跟鎮守府將軍-清原真衡是屬於同一戰線, 因此家衡跟清衡一開戰就遭逢慘敗而四處逃竄, 然而就在清原真衡率領大軍去討伐清原家衡、清原清衡、吉彥秀武等人時, 他突然病倒並於幾天後逝世, 群龍無首的軍隊也停止進攻, 戰事算是暫時平息。 這時陸奧守-源義家出面主持公道並發落後續的相關處置, 清原真衡領有的六郡由他的兩位弟弟清衡與家衡來平分。如此的做法卻讓家衡不服並十分地憤怒, 他認為清衡沒有資格去領有那三郡的領土, 因為清衡根本不是清原家的族人。

西元1086, 清原家衡趁著黑夜出兵襲擊他的兄長清衡, 雖然清衡逃過一劫, 但無辜的家人卻被家衡所殺。這樣狠毒及囂張的舉動讓源義家看不下去, 所以帶領了軍隊幫清衡主持公道, 因此戰事又起, 只是這一次是換成源義家與清原清衡的聯軍對戰清原家衡的軍隊。家衡在大營沼柵堅守了幾個月, 義家與清衡的聯軍也無法取勝。就在此時家衡的叔父清原武衡帶著援軍加入家衡陣營, 大軍移防至更為堅固的金澤柵, 而戰事也就陷入了更膠著的對峙狀態。然而家衡陣營糧食不足的問題也讓情勢轉而對義家與清衡聯軍有利。與其餓死不如戰死, 家衡改守為攻。西元10871211(寛治元年1114), 在一次夜襲義家大營的行動中清原家衡中箭身亡, 同一天清原武衡也被斬首, 後三年之役終告結束。

 源義家在平定了後三年之役後, 白河上皇(相當於太上皇;實際皇族的掌權者)懷疑他對陸奧有野心, 下令他不准再去追討。加上當時皇族(天皇/上皇)與朝廷關白・攝政-藤原氏的政治鬥爭正處於白熱化階段, 而源義家一族的河內源氏(清和源氏的分支)是傾向藤原氏那一派。因此到了西元10881, 也就是後三年之役結束的兩個月後, 源義家被免除了陸奧守的職務, 剩下的陸奧殘局就由清原清衡去收拾處理。至於後三年之役, 白河上皇認為純屬清原一族的內鬥而無戰功封賞可言, 到頭來源義家可以說是白忙一場。不過朝廷既然沒有加封賞賜, 義家認為該獎賞的還是要獎賞, 所以拿出自己的家產分賞給一起出生入死的戰友們, 也因此八幡太郎源義家的名號從此響遍全國。

 

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